The low success rate of Newcastle Disease vaccination is almost entirely due to inactivation of the vaccine because of the absence of an efficient cold chain.
This in turn is aggravated by the scattered distribution of village flocks, bad road conditions and lack of transport.
In Indonesia, the period between the vaccine leaving a central laboratory and vaccination in the village can be several days.
Vaccination programs should be carried out at appropriate times. There are seasonal patterns to outbreaks of Newcastle Disease and Fowl Pox, the diseases for which vaccination campaigns are usually carried out.
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The farming program should be taken into consideration. In Thailand, for example, Newcastle Disease vaccinations are carried out in the dry season when the farmers are not involved with rice cultivation.
It has frequently been said that lack of motivation is a major cause of the low vaccination rates in rural areas. To overcome this problem, a pilot project in Thailand organized a training course in primary schools for children of 12 years of age.
They were introduced to the concept of the advantages of vaccination against Newcastle Disease and taught to recognize the simple clinical signs of the disease. Another training course for livestock volunteers was given to five selected young village leaders.
Upon return to their village, they gave their services and advice on Newcastle Disease control to the village, free of charge. It was hoped that the increased knowledge and commitment would result in better motivation of the villagers to develop their own vaccination programs.
In Bangladesh, the sub district livestock officer organizes special training in vaccination and livestock husbandry, in consultation with the local sub district committee chairman and members, who then select the farmers and volunteers for vaccinator training.
The course is divided into two phases: theoretical and practical. On completion, the vaccinators are supplied (at cost) with vacuum flasks and other necessary equipment, to vaccinate their own and other villagers’ flocks, for a fee.
They then return the empty vials and receive fresh vaccine. The Department of Livestock Services runs the livestock disease control program for small farmers as part of its poultry development program, usually with the assistance of local nongovernment organization (NGO) groups (Bangladesh Department of Livestock Services, personal communication 2000).
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