Wed. Sep 23rd, 2020

Supporting Farmers

How to manage infectious coryza in Chickens

4 min read

I received a question from one of our readers who was concerned about his chicken  flock here is the question. hi, which is the best medicine for the treatment of chicken withinfectoius cyloza? So i decided to write this article to answer the concern.
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Infectious coryza is an acute respiratory disease of chickens characterized by nasal discharge, sneezing, and swelling of the face under the eyes.
Poor biosecurity, poor environment, and the stress of other diseases are likely reasons of its spread.
The causative bacterium is Avibacterium paragallinarum.
Chronically ill or healthy carrier birds are the reservoir of infection. Chickens of all ages are susceptible, but susceptibility increases with age.
The incubation period is 1–3 days, and the disease duration is usually 2–3 wk. Under field conditions, the duration may be longer in the presence of concurrent diseases, eg, mycoplasmosis.
Infected flocks are a constant threat to uninfected flocks. Transmission is by direct contact, airborne droplets, and contamination of drinking water.
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“All-in/all-out” management has essentially eradicated infectious coryza from many commercial poultry establishments in the USA.
Egg transmission does not occur.
In the mildest form of the disease, the only signs may be depression, a serous nasal discharge, and occasionally slight facial swelling.
In the more severe form, there is severe swelling of one or both infraorbital sinuses with edema of the surrounding tissue, which may close one or both eyes.
In adult birds, especially males, the edema may extend to the intermandibular space and wattles.
The swelling usually abates in 10–14 days; however, if secondary infection occurs, swelling can persist for months.
There may be varying degrees of rales depending on the extent of infection. In Argentina, a septicemic form of the disease has been reported, probably due to concurrent infections.
Egg production may be delayed in young pullets and severely reduced in producing hens. Birds may have diarrhea, and feed and water consumption usually is decreased during acute stages of the disease.
Prevention is the only sound method of control. “All-in/all-out” farm programs with sound management and isolation methods are the best way to avoid infectious coryza.
Replacements should be raised on the same farm or obtained from clean flocks. If replacement pullets are to be placed on a farm that has a history of infectious coryza, bacterins are available to help prevent and control the disease.
Vaccination should be completed ~4 wk before infectious coryza usually breaks out on the individual farm. Antibodies detected by the hemagglutination-inhibition test after bacterin administration do not necessarily correlate with protective immunity. Controlled exposure to live organisms also has been used to immunize layers in endemic areas.
Because early treatment is important, water medication is recommended immediately until medicated feed is available. Erythromycin and oxytetracycline are usually beneficial.
Several new-generation antibiotics (eg, fluoroquinolones, macrolides) are active against infectious coryza. Various sulfonamides, sulfonamide-trimethoprim, and other combinations have been successful.
In more severe outbreaks, although treatment may result in improvement, the disease may recur when medication is discontinued.
Preventive medication may be combined with a vaccination program if started pullets are to be reared or housed on infected premises.
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